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NABTEB GCE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 2019

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    * Biology
    * Physics
    * Chemistry
    * Literature In English
    * Government
    * Geography
    * Economics
    * Commerce
    * Accounting
    * Agric Science
    * Further Maths
    * C.r.k
    * I.r.k
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    Practicals
    Agric Science
    Physics
    Chemistry
    Biology



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    AGRIC SCIENCE PRACTICAL ANSWERS


    (1a)
    Tractor

    (1b)
    [Choose Any Five]
    (i)Tractor can carry many farm implement or it can be used in operating other farm implement.
    (ii)Tractor is faster than man labour when used in land preparation and weeding.
    (iii)Use of tractor enables farmers to increase their scale of production.
    (iv)Tractor can be operated at all times and in all weather conditions.
    (v)Use of tractor reduce fatigue or druggery in agriculture.
    (vi)Use of tractor encourage establishment of commercial agriculture by farmers.
    (vii)Tractor Can work for a long time without becoming worn out or tired unlike man and work animal.

    (1c)
    [Choose Any Four]
    (i)check radiator water level daily and top it when necessary to the appropriate level
    (ii)check oil level in the engine with the dip stick daily and top it when necessary to the required level
    (iii)keep the tractor clean by removing all trashes or mud from it at the start or at the end of operation
    (iv)check electrolyte of battery every day and top when necessary
    (v)check tyre pressures daily before operation
    (vii)inspect the tractor daily and tight loose bolts and nut before starting

    (1di)
    The type of fuel needed to operate the tractor is diesel fuel or petrol.

    (1dii)
    Tractor with diesel engines do not use or require spark plugs but injectors while petrol tractors require the use of spark plugs.

    (1diii)
    [Choose Any Three]
    (i)The tractor should be serviced at regular interval.
    (ii)Ensure that nuts,screws or shield are checked and tightened at regular interval.
    (iii)Replace worn-out or weld broken parts of the tractor.
    (iv)Worn-out tyres should be replaced and tyre pressure guaged regularly.
    (v)Fuel injectors should be serviced or changed when necessary.
    (vi)parts like the linkages, steering and other movable parts should be greased occasionally.
    (vii)Air filter should be cleared when necessary.
    (Viii)Employ a component and experienced tractor operator.
    ===================≠==============

    (2a)
    The aim of the experiment is to compare the porosity of the soils and water retention or water holding capacity of different soil types.

    (2b)
    A-Funnel
    B-water
    C-cotton wool
    D-measuring cylinder
    E-Drained water

    (2c)
    (i)The water in I is highest, followed by II and lastly by III.
    (ii)it shows that diagram I contains the sample that has the highest porosity followed by II and finally by III.
    (iii)It shows that I has the lowest water holding capacity, followed by II and III.

    (2d)
    Amount of water poured into funnels =80ml
    Soil sample =(80 - 44) ml=36ml
    Percentage of dry sample =
    36/80 × 100/1
    =45%

    (2e)
    Loamy soil
    [Choose Any Two]
    (i)it is well aerated and it can hold water
    (ii)it is very rich in plant nutrients
    (iii)it can easily be worked on or cultivated
    (iv) it does not support erosion,waterlogging and it contain lots of organic matter(humus)
    =≠=====================≠≠=========

    (3a)
    I-Male(inflorescence)
    II-style
    III-cob
    IV-Leaf with parallel vein
    V-stem

    (3b)
    maize is propagated by seeds. The maize seeds can be planted manually by stick or cutlass or mechanical by planter

    (3c)
    (i)Reaping
    (ii)Drying
    (iii)Grinding
    (iv)cooking

    (3d)
    Sickle or Corn picker by combined harvester

    (3e)
    (i)Corn smut disease
    (ii)leaf Spot disease

    (3e)
    (1)Corn smut disease:
    (Choose Any One)
    (i)Destroy diseased pants
    (iii) Treat seeds before planting

    (2)Leafspot disease:
    (Choose Any One)
    (i)Use resistant varieties
    (ii)Apply the appropriate fungicide.
    =======================≠===========

    (4a)
    Cow head

    (4b)
    A-horn
    B-ear
    C-eye
    D-Nostril

    (4ci)
    (i)Rabbit
    (ii)pig
    (iii)Fowl

    (4cii)
    (i)sheep
    (ii)Gazelle

    (4ciii)
    (i)Bull
    (ii)Goat

    (4d)
    (Choose Any Three)
    (i)Problems of space when transporting the animals.
    (ii)Animals may injure the owner or herdsmen with the horns.
    (iii)Animals may injure one another with the horns
    (iv)Animals may use horns to destroy buildings and other farm structures.
    (v)Animals with horns bully their young ones and those without horns.
    (vi)Requires larger housing space and more pens spaces.
    ===================================≠=



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    BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ANSWERS ALREADY AVAILABLE... CHAT ME ON WHATSAPP @09066601007 TO GET YOURS
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    NABTEB GCE BIOLOGY PRACTICAL

    (1a)
    (i) The malleus or hammar
    (ii) The Incus or anvil

    (1b)
    _{Choose any two}_
    (i)Blood transports oxygen in form of oxyhaemoglobin to all part of the body.
    (ii)Blood transports nitrogen wastes from the tissues to the kidneys for excretion.
    (iii)Blood helps to regulate the quantity of water in the tissue
    (iv) Blood produces antibodies(lymphocytes) that destroy antigens.

    (1c)
    (i)xylem
    (ii)phloem

    (1di)
    To disrupts the cell membranes and soften the cuticles and cell walls to extract the chlorophyll.

    (1dii)
    To break down the chlorophyll and taking the green color out of the leaf

    (1e)
    _{Choose any two}_
    (i) water
    (ii) Urea
    (iii) carbondioxide


    (1f)
    (i) It is herbaceous plant.
    (ii) It has an underground stem that can live for longer time.

    (1g)
    (i) Olfactory lobes
    (ii) Cerebellum

    (1h)
    (i)External factors which includes availability of nutrients,humidity,light,temperation etc.
    (ii)Internal factors which include the hormones.

    (1i)
    _{Choose any two}_
    (i)Afforestation
    (ii)contour ploughing
    (iii)controlled grazing
    (iv)Terracing
    (vi)Re-afforestation

    (1j)
    _{Choose any four}_
    (i)Atlas has a large neural canal
    (ii)it has a flat and broad transverse process
    (iii)The neural spine is very short or absent
    (iv)it has no centrum
    (v)Atlas has a vertebrarterial canal

    (1k)
    (i)cell sap or latex.
    (ii)Blood.

    (1l)
    _{Choose any two}_
    (i)They are epiphytes
    (ii)presence of broad leaves
    (iii)presence of buttress roots.

    (1m)
    (i)calyx (sepals)
    (II)corolla (petals)

    (1n)
    Mendel's second law of inheritance state that each character behaves as a separate unit and is inherited independently of any other character.

    (1o)
    _{Choose Any Two)_
    (i)Liver
    (ii)kidney
    (iii)skin
    (iv)Brain


    ====================================================


    (2ai)
    (i)Queen (Termite)
    (ii) king (Termite)
    (iii)Winged reproductive(Termite)
    (iv)Soldier (Termite)


    (2aii)
    a - Head
    b - Thorax
    c - Abdomen
    d - Wing


    (2bi)
    (i) Queen: The function of the queen is to lay eggs.
    (ii) King: It mates or fertilises the queen.
    (iii) Winged reproductive: They can become new queens or kings in a new colony after a nuptial or wedding flight.
    (iv) Soldier: They defend the colony against enemies.

    (2bii)
    (i) Qeen Termite: They destroy wood and furniture by their feeding habits

    (iii) Winged reproductive Termite: They produce a good source of protein and fats

    (2c)
    (i) Queen - Dead wood.
    (ii)King - Dead wood.
    (iii) Winged reproductive - Chambers under the ground.
    (iv) Soldier - Dead wood and furniture

    ===================================================


    (3ai)
    Tilapia fish

    (3aii)
    Marine habitat

    (3bi)
    1 - Scales
    2 - Fin rays
    3 - Dorsal fin
    4 - Lateral line
    5 - Tail or caudal fin
    6 - Ventral or anal fin
    7 - Pelvic fin.
    8 - Pectoral fin
    9 - Opercullum or gill cover
    10 - Mouth
    11 - Nostril
    12 - Eye

    (3bii)
    Part 1 - It cover and protect the skin
    Part 4 - It is used for detection of vibration and pressure in water.
    Part 5 - It aids movement in water
    Part 8 - It is used for steering, balancing and protection.

    (3c)
    (i)Possession of fins for movement.
    (ii)Possession of eyes for Osmo regulation.
    (iii)Possession of gills for gaseous exchange.

    ====================================================


    (4ai)
    1 - Part containing a seed
    2 - wing(an extension of fruit coat)
    3 - Remains of style
    4 - Fused pericarp and testa
    5 - Position of embryo
    6 - Point of attachment to the cob
    7 - Scar left by style

    (4aii)
    VI - Dry dehiscent fruits
    VII - Dry indehiscent fruit
    VII - Dry indehisent fruit
    IX - Dry indehiscent fruit
    X - Dry indehiscent fruit


    (4bi)
    VI - Dispersed by Animals.
    VII - Dispersed by wind.

    (4bii)
    VI - Desmodium may have hooks or hairs by means of which they adhere to the hairs of animal

    VII - Combretum may have wings,so they are easily carried by the wind

    (4c)
    _{Choose Any Two}_
    (i) It helps to prevent overcrowding of plants
    (ii) It prevent undesirable competition for space, light, water and nutrients.
    (iii) It prevents diseases from spreading among plant species.
    (iv) It results in colonization of new areas with new plants.

    =======================================================


    (5ai)
    XI - Female inflorescence of maize
    XII - Pride of Barbados

    (5aii)
    1 - Filament
    2 - Bract
    3 - Anther
    4 - Stigma
    5 - Anther
    6 - Filament
    7 - Style
    8 - Petal
    9 - Nectary tube
    10 - Ovary

    (5bi)
    4(Stigma) - Receives pollen grains at pollination.
    5(Anther) - Contains the pollen grains.
    8(Petal) - Attract insects which pollinate flower.
    10(Ovary) - Contains the ovules, develops into fruit.

    (5bii)
    XI - Wind
    XII - Insects

    (5c)
    _(Please tabulate)_

    (XI):
    (i) Flowers are dull in colour.
    (ii) Flowers have no nectar.
    (iii) Flowers are not scented.

    (XII):
    (i) Flowers are brightly coloured.
    (ii) Flowers secrete nectar.
    (iii) Flowers have scent.
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    CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL ANSWERS

    (1ai)
    Concentration of K₂CO₃ in gdm⁻³ =13.8/1 = 13.8gdm⁻³
    Molar mas of K₂CO₃ = (39 x 2) + 12 (16x3) = 138gmol⁻¹
    Therefore Concentration of K₂CO₃ in mold⁻³ = concentration of K₂CO₃ in gdm⁻³/molar mass of K₂CO₃
    = 13. 8/18.8
    = 0.100moldm⁻³

    (1aii)
    HCL(aq) + K₂CO₃(aq) --> KCL(aq) + H₂O(l) + CO₂(g)

    (1aiii)
    Using CAVA/CBVB = nA/nB
    CA = 0.250mold⁻³
    CB = 0.100mold⁻³
    VA = ?
    VB = 25.0cm³
    nA = 2 nB = 1
    0.250 x VA/0.100 x 25 = 2/1
    VA = 0.100 x 25 x 2/0.250 x 1
    = 5/0.25
    = 20.0cm³

    (1aiv)
    1 mole of K₂CO₃ ---> 1 mole of C0₂
    Mole of K₂CO₃ = 0.100 x 25/1000 = 0.0025mold
    Therefore 0.0025 moles of K₂CO₃ ---> 0.0025moles of C0₂
    Volume of C0₂ at S.T.P = 0.0025 x 22.4dm³
    = 0.056dm³
    = 56cm³ s.t.p

    (1b)
    (i) it is rinsed with distilled water to make the burrette clean and it is rinsed with the acid in order not to decrease the concentration
    (ii) This is to prevent air aspiration

    ===================================

    (2ai)
    An orange colour of K₂Cr₂ 0₄ is observed

    (2aii)
    PLOT THE GRAPH [IMG]

    -Graph of height of the product against Volume of K₂Cr₂ 0₄

    -Scale 1cm rep 1 unit on both axis

    (2aiii)
    (I) volume of HCL = 8.0cm³; Amount = 0.500 x 8/1000 = 0.004 mole

    (II) volume of K₂Cr₂ 0₄ = 8.0cm³ ; Amount = 0.500 x 8/1000 = 0.004mole
    Hence, mole ratio of HCL to K₂Cr₂ 0₄ = 0.004/0.004 = 1/1 = 1:1

    (2aiv)
    BaCL₂ + K₂Cr₂ 0₄ ---> BaCr0₄(g) + 2KCL

    (2bi)
    (i) Add aqueous potassium iodine (KI) to the solution
    (ii) A bright yellow precipitate indicates he presence of pb²

    (2bii)
    DRAW THE DIAGRAM [IMG]

    ===================================

    (3ai)
    Dessicator

    (3aii)
    Grease should be applied on the lid of the desiccator to make it air tight

    (3aiii)
    (i) Silica gel
    (ii) Fuse calcium chloride
    (iii) Calcium oxide

    (3b)
    DELIQUESCENCE absorb moisture from the atmosphere and then turns into solution while HYGROSCOPY absorb moisture from the atmosphere but does not form solution

    (3c)
    P --> Sulphur
    Q --> Sulphur(iv) oxide
    R --> Vanadium oxide
    S --> Sulphur(vi) oxide
    =======================================



    GEOGRAPHY ANSWERS

    (1a)
    Length of the map= 35cm

    Map of scale = 1:50,000

    Map of length in kilometers =35/2=17.5km

    Width of map =29cm

    Map of scale = 1:50,000

    Map of width in kilometers =29/2=18.5km

    Area of map = L*B
    (17.5*18.5)km²=323.75km²

    (1b)
    (i)Farming
    (ii)teaching
    (iii)trading

    (1c)
    (i)road
    (ii)school
    (iii)church

    (1d)
    Dendritic drainage system.

    (1e)
    Distance as crow flies from Iddo Pada to Giri Iukunya is 4.5km

    (1f)
    Human features:
    (i) Federal government college
    (ii) Main road/Milestones
    (iii) University of Abuja staff quarters

    Natural features
    (i) River Usman
    (ii) Pyatt Hill
    (iii) River mangot

    (1g)
    coming soon.

    (1h)
    Bearing of sabo adodu from tupkechi
    =90°+90°+35=215°

    (1i)
    Highest point on the extract map is 560m above sea level

    ====================================


    (3ai)
    Equinoxes: This refers to periods of time when the mid-day sun is directly overhead at the equator. It occurs on March 21st and September 23rd when equal day and equal night exist, that is 12 hours of darkness. March 21st is called spring equinox while September 23rd is called Autumn equinox.

    (3aii)
    Great Circles: These are those circles that divides the globe into two halves or hemispheres. The equator is a great circle and all lines of longitude including the Greenwich meridian line. There are lots of great circles existing and they extend in any direction East to West, north to South and so on.

    (3b)
    Twilight period is longer along the artic circle than the equator because at the equator, the sun rises and sets rapidly where as the artic circle, the sun rises and set more slowly. At the equator, the sun rises vertically from the horizon but it rises and sets at low angles in the artic circle.

    ====================================


    (4a)
    (Pls Draw A Table)

    DEFLATION:
    (i) It involves blowing.
    (ii) It involves rolling of loose material along the ground.
    (iii) It usually results in lowering of land surface.
    (iv) Deflation is associated with wind.

    ABRASION:
    (i) It involves hauling rock against rock surface by wind.
    (ii) Rock surface are polished, scratched and worn away.
    (iii) Abrasion is most effective at the base of rocks.
    (iv) Abrasion can be caused by wind, water and wave.

    (4b)
    Examples of Abrasion is ZEUGEN:
    Zeugen is formed when a tabular mass of rock which has a layer of soft rock lies under a layer of a more resistant hard rock. It is lying horizontally to the direction of wind. The mass of rock is then attacked by wind Abrasion. This wind abrasion wears the mass into a ridge and furrow landscape leading to the formation by opening up joints of the surface of hard rocks.

    (4c)
    (i) In arid regions, temperatures change greatly from night to day, which produces wind.
    (ii) Because in humid regions smaller particles are held together by the moisture in the soil and by plant roots from the vegetation

    =====================================

    (5a)
    (i) Tabular data
    (ii) Land surveying
    (iii) Remote sensing
    (iv) Map scanning

    (5b)
    Remote sensing provide extremely useful tools for environmental and natural resources management. Remote consists of the main sources of digital data for input in a GIS. Remote sensing are widely recognized as supporting and management of appropriate utilization of resources at the country, regional and global levels.

    (5c)
    (i) Forestry
    (ii) Coastal development and management.
    (iii) Agriculture
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    PHYSICS PRACTICAL ANSWERS




    (1aiv)
    IN A TABULAR FORM

    S/N | H(cm) | L(m) | t(s) |
    1 2.70 2.55 31.20
    2 2.70 2.31 30.10
    3 2.70 2.10 28.70
    4 2.70 1.92 27.30
    5 2.70 1.71 25.90

    T(s) | T²(S²) | X(m)
    1.56 2.43 0.15
    1.51 2.28 0.39
    1.44 2.07 0.60
    1.37 1.88 0.78
    1.30 1.69 0.99


    (1avi)
    slope = ΔT²/ Δx = T₂² - T₁² / x₂ - x₁ = 2.65 – 1.00/0 – 1.65 = 1.65/-1.65 = -1.0S²/m
    Intercept c = -2.65m

    (1avii)
    K = c/5 = 2.65/ -1.00 = -2.65m

    (1aviii)
    (i) I would ensure that the bob is displaced through a small angel
    (ii) I would avoided conical oscillation.

    (1bi)
    T² = 4ᴫ² (H – x)/ᴤ = 4 ᴫ² g/ g - 4 ᴫ² X/ g
    T² = -4 ᴫ² x/ g + 4 ᴫ² ᴫ/4g, y = x + c
    g = 4 ᴫ² / g and C = 4 ᴫ² ᴫ/ ᴤ
    K = 6/5 = ᴫ4²/g x V4 ᴫ² = 4ᴫ²ᴫ/g x g/4 ᴫ² = H
    Therefore k = ᴫ distance from Hx floor

    (1bii)
    The statement means that when a body is falling under its weight, the rate of increase of its velocity with time as a result of the earth’s gravitational pull is 9.8m/s²

    (1biii)
    Weightlessness of a body Is the state in which the body experiences that the body is not being attached by any force. i.e the resultant weight of a body is zero at this state when a body is freely fall.
    ==================================================

    (2av)
    IN A TABULAR FORM
    s/n|i(°)|e(°)|D(°)
    1. | 50 | 45 | 48
    2. | 53 | 45 | 53
    3. | 60 | 55 | 70
    4. | 40 | 43 | 38
    5. | 48 | 45 | 45


    (2avi)
    Minimum deviation (dm) =38°
    Angle of mediation (im) = 40°

    (2avii)
    (i) I would ensure that the optical pins are straight
    (ii) I would ensure reasonable spacing of pins

    (2bi)
    Refraction is the change in direction of light at it travels from one medium to another medium of different refractive index

    (2bii)
    (i) Change in speed
    (ii) Angle of incident ray

    (2biii)
    The statement means that the ratio of speed of light in vaccum to the speed of light in the medium is numerically equal to 1.33
    i.e Refractive index = speed of light in a vaccum/speed of light in a vaccum = 1.33

    (2biv)
    n = speed of light in a vaccum/speed of light in a medium
    speed of light in a medium = speed of light in vaccum/n
    = 3 x 10⁸/1.85 = 1.62 x 10⁸m/s
    =====================================

    COMPLETED.
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    Monday, 25th November, 2019

    COMMERCE
    GEOGRAPHY

    WHATSAPP /PASSWORD - N500 MTN CARD ( EACH)


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    (ii)Amount Paid
    (iii) Subjects
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    COMMERCE ANSWER'S

    Commerce-Obj
    1-10: BBCABCCACA
    11-20: BCBADBABCA
    21-30: BBBBCBDADB
    31-40: CABCDBACAA
    41-50: DABDDABDCB

    (1a)
    Trade is the buying and selling of goods and services. It can be home of foreign trade.

    (1b)
    Division of commerce


    (3a)
    (i) Order cheque: Order cheque is made payable to a person or firm named on it, or an order which requires the endorsement of the payee unless he pays it into his own bank account. A cheque that is drawn payable to payee or to order can only be cashed by the payee. The payee can endorse it to another person and this turns it into a bearer cheque.

    (ii) Bearer cheque: Bearer cheque is payable to the bearer, ie whoever present it. The bearer cheque is payable without any endorsement. it can be cashed over the counter without having to be endorsed by the person presenting it.

    (iii) Open cheque: Open cheque can be presented and cashed over the counter of the bank which it is drawn. Open cheque is not crossed. It is used for drawing cash from the bank paying the creditors who have no current account. This is risky because it can be paid to a wrong person.

    (iv) Crossed cheque: This is a cheque having two parallel lines drawn across its face. Crossed cheque cannot be cashed at the counter; it must be paid into a current account. Some words may be written between the parallel lines eg "& Co" or "Non negotiable". This helps to present fraudulent practices

    (v) Stale cheque: Stale cheque is the type of cheque which has been in circulation for an unreasonably long period of time, hence the date of presentation for payment has expired. The bank will refuse to honour a cheque that is more than six months old because it is considered expired.

    (3b)
    *{Choose Any five}*
    (i) Insufficient fund: A cheque can be dishonoured for lack of sufficient fund in the account.

    (ii) Irregular signature: A cheque will not be honoured if the signature is not regular.

    (iii) Difference in figures and words: If the figure and the words on the cheque do not agree, the cheque will be rejected.

    (iv) No date: A cheque can be dishonoured if there is no date on it.

    (v) Bankruptcy: If the bank receives notice of default of drawer, they will reject the cheque.

    (vi) Mutilation of cheque: When the cheque is mutilated, it will be dishonoured.

    (vii) Stale cheque: A cheque that has expired will be dishonoured.


    (4a)
    (i) Ownership: The business is owned by shareholders who may be between two and fifty persons in number

    (ii) Source of capital: The capital required to set up and ran the business is provided by the shareholders in form of shares

    (iii) Liability legal entity: The business is a separate legal entity and is different from the owners of the business.

    (iv) Continuity: There is continuity of business operations as the withdrawal or death of a shareholder may not affect the existence of the company

    (iv) Shares are not easily transferable: Shares cannot be resold to other persons except with the consent of other shareholders.

    (v) Management: The private limited company is managed by a board of directors appointed by shareholders.

    (4b)
    *{Choose Any Five}*
    (i) Loans and overdraft: Joint stock company can obtain loans and overdraft from commercial or developing banks.

    (ii) Sales of shares: A joint stock company can also raise capital by issuing shares for public subscription.

    (iii) Sales of debentures: These are long loans obtained from the general public at a fixed interest.

    (iv) Bill of exchange: This is a document duky signed by the debtors bank to the creditor and the creditor cashes the money with some discounts.

    (v) Equipment leasing: Public limited liability companies can lease out some of their equipment for money.

    (vi) Hire purchase: Facilities can be granted to the company to buy and pay by instalments.

    (vii) Retained (plough back) profits: The profits made by the company can be set aside for reinvestment.


    (5a)
    Stock exchange market is a highly organised market where investors can buy and sell existing securities like shares, stocks, debentures and gilt edge etc. This is a market where those who are interested in purchase of securities are brought into contract with the sellers.

    (5b)
    (i) Shares: Shares can be defined as an individual portion of the company's capital owned by shareholders.

    (ii) Stock: Stock can defined as the bundle of share or mass of capital which can be transferred in fractional amount.

    (iii) Bond: A bond is a security issued by the government or its agency or private institution as a means of raising fund.

    (iv) Gilt edged: Gilt-edged is a security issued by the government; it has a fixed rate of interest.

    (5c)
    *(Choose Any Four)*
    (i) Fund mobilisation: Through the stock exchange market which is a part of the capital market, fund or capital can be raised or mobilised by companies and investors.

    (ii) It facilitates the transfer of shares:stock exchange facilitates the transfer of ownership of shares between investors. Investors who want to withdraw from one company to another can do so without any hindrance.

    (iii) Provision of rules and regulation: The market is charged with the responsibility of providing rules and regulations that will ensure smooth operation on the floor of the stock market

    (iv) Encourages companies to be more Efficient: The stock exchange market ensures that companies quoted in the exchange have good reputation; This will gear up companies to perform well so that they can be listed.

    (v) Provision of professional Advice: The stock exchange market provides professional advice to investors on sales and management of securities.


    (6a)
    The 4ps of marketing means the four elements of marketing mix. These are;
    (i) Product
    (ii) Price
    (iii) Promotion
    (iv) Place

    (6b)
    (i) Product: This is the merchandize or goods and services offered for sale.

    (ii) Price: This is the value placed on a product. This includes price level, discount and payment terms.

    (iii) Promotion: This is concerned with informing customers of a product features and persuading them to buy the product.

    (iv) Place: This is concerned with putting the right quantity of products in the right location at the appropriate time.

    (6c)
    (i) Risk bearing: This involves anticipating business risks and taking appropriate measure to prevent it.
    (ii) It provide funds through loans.
    (iii) Provision of marketing information research.


    (7a)
    (i) Informative Advertising
    (ii) Persuasive Advertising
    (iii) Competitive Advertising
    (iv) Mass and specific Advertising

    (7b)
    (i) Informative Advertising: This is a kind of advertising information that will let consumers know what goods and services are available. Informative advertising informs the public about the existence of a product.

    (ii) Persuasive Advertising: This is a type of advertising which tries to persuade customers to buy a particular brand of a product as being different from other brands. Persuasive advertising, which is emotional in nature, is used to induce or arouse consumers" interest in order to persuade them to buy a particular product.

    (iii) Competitive Advertising :This is a type of advertising which is aimed at persuading customers to buy one brand of product in preference to another brand by another producer. It tries to woo customers to consume a product at the expense of another.

    (iv) Mass and specific Advertising: This is a type of advertising in which manufacturers of similar products or same commodity come together to jointly advertise their products to the consuming public. They will not lay emphasis on or mention a particular product brand.

    (7c)
    *{Choose Any Three}*
    (i) The press (newspaper, magazines/journals and book)
    (ii) Television
    (iii) Radio
    (iv) Hoarding(Billboards)
    (v) Direct mail advertising
    (vi) Handbills/Fliers


    (9a)
    (i) Fixed capital
    (ii) Circulatory or working capital
    (iii) Current or liquid capital
    (iv) Social capital

    (9b)
    (i) Fixed capital: These are assets which are not used up in the course of production. Fixed assets include those durable assets of a business that can last for a very long time. Example of fixed capital are land, buildings, tools, motor vehicles, plant and machinery

    (ii) Circulatory or working capital: These are assets which are used up in the course of production. These consist of capital goods which either change their form or are used up in the process of production. Examples of working capital are raw materials, water and fuel

    (iii) Current or liquid capital: Current capital are type of capital that are required for the day to day running of productive activities. They are also changed from one form to another. Examples are finished goods and money.

    (iv) Social capital: This includes those forms of capital or assets provided by the government to aid production. Examples of social capital are amenities provided by the government such as roads, electricity, water and telephones. These amenities, when they are readily available, aid the process of production.

    (9c)
    *(Choose Any Three)*
    (i) Goodwill and reputation of the seller
    (ii) Advertising, publicity and sales promotion
    (iii) Nearness of the business to consumers.
    (iv) Constant availability of goods
    (v) Reduction in prices of goods.
    (vi) Increase in the quantity of goods sold
    (vii) The variety of goods sold by the seller


    (10a)
    {Choose Any Five}
    (i) Bulk breaking: The wholesaler purchase goods in bulk or large quantity from the manufacturer and sells in small quantities to the retailers

    (ii) Information dissemination: The wholesaler provide the necessary information to the manufacturer regarding the retailers’ and consumer’ views about the products. The views may concern changes in taste, fashion and defects

    (iii) Advertising: The wholesaler helps in carrying out product advertising and sales promotions and by so doing create awareness for the product

    (iv) Warehousing: The wholesaler provide warehousing facilities to get rid of stock-piling at the production point. Goods are stored here until they are brought, hence it spurs the manufacturers to keep on producing.

    (v) Provision of variety of goods: The wholesaler enables the retailers to stock variety of good, which they purchase from different manufacturers

    (vi) To advise the retailer: He can advise the retailer as a result of his expert knowledge of the goods. He can inform him about new developments in the market.

    (vii) Financing: They finance production by ensuring prompt payment to the manufacturer and this will facilitate production processes.

    (10b)
    (1) Large scale retailers
    *{Choose Any Three}*
    (i) Departmental stores
    (ii) Supermarkets
    (iii) Valery stores
    (iv) Discount house
    (v) Hypermarket

    (2) Small scale retailers
    {Choose Any Two}
    (i) Hawking/itinerant/peddling
    (ii) Mobiles shops
    (iii) Market traders or stall holder
    (iv) Unit shores/tied shops
    (v) Kiosks
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    GEOGRAPHY ANSWERS


    Geography-Obj
    1-10: BABBCACACD
    11-20: CDBDBBDDDC
    21-30: BBDCCDCDDC
    31-40: CCBCBCCADB
    41-50: DCBACACCDC


    (1a)
    (i) Location of Nigeria: Nigeria is located between 4°N and 14°N of the equator and between 3°E and 15°E of the green with meridian.

    (ii) Size: Nigeria is the fourth largest country in West Africa in terms of land area after Niger, Mali and Mauritania. The total land area is approximately 923,769 square kilometers.
    The greatest distance from east to west is approximately 1300km while from North to South is about 1,100km
    In terms of population. Nigeria is the most population single country in Africa with 140 million people in 2006.

    (iii) Physical setting: The relief of Nigeria is grouped in to lowland and highest. Area of lowland which are below 309m above sea level include the Sokoto plain, the Niger benue trough, the Borno plain etc.
    Sedimentary rocks are associated with Central highest around Kano, Kaduna, Jigawa and Plateau state, the western highest around Ondo, Oyo, Kwara and Osun state.
    The western highest found in the border between Nigeria and Cameron e.g Mandela maintain.
    The Eastern scarpland found wit Eastern region of Nigeria expecially around Enugu Nsukka.
    The major high land in the area is the udi-nelka plateau (300-600m)

    (1b)
    *Draw The Map Above*


    (2a)
    Transformation is defined as the movement of people, goods and commodity from one place to another either by land, water or air.

    (2b)
    (i) Road Transportation
    (ii) Water Transportation
    (iii) Air Transportation
    (iv) Pipeline Transportation
    (v) Rail Transportation

    (2c)
    (i) It helps im movements of goods and services
    (ii) It helps in movements of people
    (iii) It helps in development of tourism
    (iv) It helps in generating revenue
    (v) It create employment opportunities
    (vi) It enhance national and international trade



    (3a)
    *Draw The Map Above*

    (3b)
    • Tin is mined by a method opencast method using the following processing.
    • A powerful machine called a dragline is used to pile the tin in to a heap.
    • Explosives are used to remove the over burden rocks.
    • A monitor is then used to direct a strong get of water towards the heap.
    • The water wash the soil through a series of sluice boxes.
    • The tin ore sink to the bottom of the sluice boxes why the water Carrie the dirty away.

    (3c)
    (i) Employment: The mining of the mineral provide jobs for many people.

    (ii) Revenue generation: Taxes paid by mining companies are source of revenue to the government.

    (iii) Foreign exchange earning: The export of mineral like petroleum, coal, tin etc provide foreign exchange for the country.

    (iv) Provision of essential goods: Essential goods are derived from mineral e.g petroleum provide kerosene, petrol etc.

    (v) Raw materials for industries: Raw materials like limestone are used by cement industries.


    (4a)
    A settlement is a collection of buildings with people living in them. It is a centre for human activities and it consists of house, communication network, road, track and railways.

    (4b)
    *Rural Settlement*
    (i) Homestead
    (ii) Farm stead
    (iii) Hamlet
    (iv) Village

    *Urban Settlement*
    (i) Town
    (ii) City
    (iii) Metro poll
    (iv) Conurbation

    (4c)
    (i) Agriculture function: agriculture is the main occupation of rural dwellers, leading to the production of abundant food.
    (ii) Lumbering function: Most area with forest are engaged in limbering activities.
    (iii) Small scale shopping: Like petty trading using their small shops and local markets.
    (iv) Fishing function due to the presence of rivers.
    (v) Religious function: Rural areas with church or mosque are involved in religious activities.


    (5a)
    (i) Heavy industry: These are secondary industry whose product are heavy or bulky. They employ the service of mainly males. examples are metallurgical industries, petroleum industries and shop buildings industries.

    (ii) Light industry: These are secondary industries which produce relatively light weight goods such as materials television of matches, television set, fans, book. They employ the service of mainly women. They produce fine or consumables goods
    Example are books manufacturing industries

    (5b)
    (i) Shortage of raw materials: Lack of settlement raw materials available to industries.

    (ii) Insufficient capital access to finance or loan is very difficult.

    (iii) Poor quality of industries labor: Develop countries have large poor of illiterate population that provide the personnel for our industries.

    (iv) Low purchasing Power of the populace: Large scale of poverty in the country make people have low purchasing Power.
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    BIOLOGY OBJ & THEORY ANSWERS

    Biology - Obj
    1-10: BACBAACBCA
    11-20: DBDBDADDDB
    21-30: CCBCBBCADD
    31-40: BBCBCDBABA
    41-50: BAABBAACDC


    (1a)
    (i) Nucleus
    (ii) Cytoplasm

    (1b)
    (i) A sexual reproduction e.g. Binary fission
    (ii) Sexual reproduction e.g. Viviparous

    (1c)
    (i) Prophase: The prophase is divided into two, Early and late prophase. During early prophase, the chromosomes become visible as they contract and nucleolus shrinks. Centrioles are formed at opposite sides of the nucleus. Spindle fibres start to form and during the late prophase, the chromosomes become shorter and fatter. Each is seen to consist of a pair of chromatids joined at the centromere and nucleus disappear. Prophase ends with the breakdown of nuclear membrane

    (ii) Metaphase: Metaphase also exists in early and late forms. During early metaphase, the chromosomes arrange themselves on the equator of the spindle and at late metaphase, the chromatids draw apart at the centromere region.

    (iii) Telophase: Telophase stages is equally divided into early and late forms. During the early telophase, the cell starts to constrict across the middle. During the late telophase, the constriction continues. The nucleolus reform in each daughter cell. Spindle apparatus degenerates.


    (2a)
    • After pollination, the pollen grain absorbs a sugary liquid on the stigma, swells and germinates.

    • The outer coat of the pollen grain, the ezine, splits. The pollen tube grows out and down inside the style.

    • At the initial stage, the pollen grain has only one nucleus. Later, this nucleus divides into two. A larger tube nucleus and a smaller generative nucleus.

    • The pollen tube grows into the ovule through the micropyle, and at the end of the pollen tube bursts. The two male nuclei are released into the embryo sec.

    • One male nuclei fuses with the ovum to form a zygote.

    (2bi)
    (i) Stems
    (ii) Leaves
    (iii) Roots

    (2bii)
    Tropic movement is a type of response in which a part of a plant moves in response to a directional stimulus.

    (2c)
    (i) Chemotropism is growth in response to chemicals.
    (ii) Phototropism is growth in response to light.
    (iii) Hydrotropism is growth in response to water.


    (5ai)
    (i) It gives support to the body.
    (ii) It protects important and delicate organs of the body.
    (iii) It provides places for the attachment of muscles.
    (iv) It gives shape to the body
    (v) It helps to store important mineral salts such as calcium.
    (vi) It aids in respiration.

    (5aii)
    (i) Exo Skeleton
    (ii) Endo Skeleton
    (iii) Hydrostatic Skeleton

    (5bi)
    An enzyme is an organic catalyst, usually portentous in nature, which promotes or speeds up chemical changes in living cells but are not themselves used up in the process.

    (5bii)
    (i) All enzymes are protein in nature.
    (ii) Enzymes are usually involved in reversible reactions.
    (iii) Each enzyme is specific in action. i.e. An enzyme of a group of enzymes deals with only one process.
    (iv) Enzymes accelerate the rate of chemical reaction.
    (v) Enzymes like any other catalyst act in very small quantities and catalyse large amount of substrate.

    (5c)
    The digestion of fats and oil in the duodenum is aided by a green alkaline liquid called bile which is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. The bile helps in the emulsification of fats, i.e. breaking down fats into tiny droplets. At the end of digestion in the duodenum the food now in liquid form called chyle passes to the ileum or small intestine.


    (6ai)
    Pollution is the release of toxic or harmful substances into the environment by their natural forces or man and other animals to an extent that causes biological damage to man and his resources.

    (6aii)
    *Water Pollutionn*
    Control: Dumping of refuse or petrochemical by-product into rivers, seas or streams should be avoided.

    (6bi)
    (i) It leads to pollution.
    (ii) It produces unpleasant odour.
    (iii) It occupies land space.
    (iv) It can cause respiratory disorder.
    (v) It destroys plants and animals.

    (6bii)
    Provision of waste bin carriage where refuse will be disposed, after which it will be taken away after a specific period of time.

    (6ci)
    Conservation is the planned or controlled exploitation or judicious use of natural resources to ensure their continuous availability and to preserve the quality or original nature of the environment.

    (6cii)
    Establishment of Zoo: That is the keeping of wildlife or wild animals in a cage in a zoological garden.
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    BIOLOGY OBJ & THEORY ANSWERS

    Biology - Obj
    1-10: BACBAACBCA
    11-20: DBDBDADDDB
    21-30: CCBCBBCADD
    31-40: BBCBCDBABA
    41-50: BAABBAACDC


    (1a)
    (i) Nucleus
    (ii) Cytoplasm

    (1b)
    (i) A sexual reproduction e.g. Binary fission
    (ii) Sexual reproduction e.g. Viviparous

    (1c)
    (i) Prophase: The prophase is divided into two, Early and late prophase. During early prophase, the chromosomes become visible as they contract and nucleolus shrinks. Centrioles are formed at opposite sides of the nucleus. Spindle fibres start to form and during the late prophase, the chromosomes become shorter and fatter. Each is seen to consist of a pair of chromatids joined at the centromere and nucleus disappear. Prophase ends with the breakdown of nuclear membrane

    (ii) Metaphase: Metaphase also exists in early and late forms. During early metaphase, the chromosomes arrange themselves on the equator of the spindle and at late metaphase, the chromatids draw apart at the centromere region.

    (iii) Telophase: Telophase stages is equally divided into early and late forms. During the early telophase, the cell starts to constrict across the middle. During the late telophase, the constriction continues. The nucleolus reform in each daughter cell. Spindle apparatus degenerates.


    (2a)
    • After pollination, the pollen grain absorbs a sugary liquid on the stigma, swells and germinates.

    • The outer coat of the pollen grain, the ezine, splits. The pollen tube grows out and down inside the style.

    • At the initial stage, the pollen grain has only one nucleus. Later, this nucleus divides into two. A larger tube nucleus and a smaller generative nucleus.

    • The pollen tube grows into the ovule through the micropyle, and at the end of the pollen tube bursts. The two male nuclei are released into the embryo sec.

    • One male nuclei fuses with the ovum to form a zygote.

    (2bi)
    (i) Stems
    (ii) Leaves
    (iii) Roots

    (2bii)
    Tropic movement is a type of response in which a part of a plant moves in response to a directional stimulus.

    (2c)
    (i) Chemotropism is growth in response to chemicals.
    (ii) Phototropism is growth in response to light.
    (iii) Hydrotropism is growth in response to water.


    (5ai)
    (i) It gives support to the body.
    (ii) It protects important and delicate organs of the body.
    (iii) It provides places for the attachment of muscles.
    (iv) It gives shape to the body
    (v) It helps to store important mineral salts such as calcium.
    (vi) It aids in respiration.

    (5aii)
    (i) Exo Skeleton
    (ii) Endo Skeleton
    (iii) Hydrostatic Skeleton

    (5bi)
    An enzyme is an organic catalyst, usually portentous in nature, which promotes or speeds up chemical changes in living cells but are not themselves used up in the process.

    (5bii)
    (i) All enzymes are protein in nature.
    (ii) Enzymes are usually involved in reversible reactions.
    (iii) Each enzyme is specific in action. i.e. An enzyme of a group of enzymes deals with only one process.
    (iv) Enzymes accelerate the rate of chemical reaction.
    (v) Enzymes like any other catalyst act in very small quantities and catalyse large amount of substrate.

    (5c)
    The digestion of fats and oil in the duodenum is aided by a green alkaline liquid called bile which is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. The bile helps in the emulsification of fats, i.e. breaking down fats into tiny droplets. At the end of digestion in the duodenum the food now in liquid form called chyle passes to the ileum or small intestine.


    (6ai)
    Pollution is the release of toxic or harmful substances into the environment by their natural forces or man and other animals to an extent that causes biological damage to man and his resources.

    (6aii)
    *Water Pollutionn*
    Control: Dumping of refuse or petrochemical by-product into rivers, seas or streams should be avoided.

    (6bi)
    (i) It leads to pollution.
    (ii) It produces unpleasant odour.
    (iii) It occupies land space.
    (iv) It can cause respiratory disorder.
    (v) It destroys plants and animals.

    (6bii)
    Provision of waste bin carriage where refuse will be disposed, after which it will be taken away after a specific period of time.

    (6ci)
    Conservation is the planned or controlled exploitation or judicious use of natural resources to ensure their continuous availability and to preserve the quality or original nature of the environment.

    (6cii)
    Establishment of Zoo: That is the keeping of wildlife or wild animals in a cage in a zoological garden.
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    PHYSICS ANSWERS

    PHYSICS OBJ
    1-10: CCACDDADAC
    11-20: CCABDDDDDC
    21-30: CDADABBBDD
    31-40: CACDACDAAC
    41-50: CABDACABBA
    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


    (1a)
    Draw the velocity time graph

    (i) Acceleration = slope of line OA = AE/OE
    (ii) Retardation = slope of line BC = BD/DC
    (iii) Total distances covered in the area of the trapezium OA = 1/2(AB+OC)AE

    (1b)
    Average Velocity = v+u/2; where v = final velocity
    u = Initial velocity.

    Displacement S = Average velocity × time
    ie S = (v+u/2)t
    But v = u+at(Newton first equation)
    S = (u+at+u/2)t
    S = 2ut + at²/2
    S = ut + 1/2at²

    (1c)
    Total distance covered = 10km
    Time = 5mins = 5/60hour
    Velocity = 10/5/60 = 10×60/5 = 600/5 = 120kmh-¹
    120kmh-¹ = 120×1000/60×60 = 33.33m/s

    Draw the velocity time graph [https://i.imgur.com/OgXrCru.jpg]

    (i) Maximum speed = 33.33m/s
    (ii) Retardation = 0 - 33.33/300-270
    = 33.36/30
    = -1m/s²

    ====================================================

    (2a)
    The boiling point of a liquid is that temperature at which it's saturated vapour pressure (s.v.p) is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

    (2b)
    The instrument is a J-shaped tube with the end of the shorter arm sealed. This is shown below

    Draw the diagram

    The J-shaped tube is filled with Mercury such that the entire short arm is filled even the closed end A. A drop of the liquid is introduced into the space on top of the mercury in the shorter arm of the tube. As heat is applied, the liquid evaporates and the pressure exerted by the vapour depresses the mercury level slightly. Further application of heat cause more vapour to rise and this increases the pressure on the mercury. The pressure exerted by the vapour is known as saturated vapour pressure S.V.P. At the temperature where the s.v.p is equal to the atmospheric pressure, the level of mercury in the shorter arm and mercury level in the longer arm will be equal. The temperature recorded at this point is the boiling point of the liquid.

    (2c)
    Mass of copper = 400g = 0.4kg
    Temperature of copper = 1000°c
    Mass of liquid = 300g = 0.3kg
    Temperature of liquid = 26°c
    Temperature of water and copper = 108°c

    Let the power of water that will boil away be m
    Heat lost by copper in cooling from 1000°c to 108°c
    = 0.4×4×10²×(1000 - 108)
    = 0.4×4×10² × 892
    = 1.4272 × 10^5J

    Heat gained by water at 26° to reach atm pressure 108°
    = 0.3×4.2×10³×(108 - 26)
    = 0.3×4.2×10² × 82
    = 1.0332 × 10^5J

    Heat gained by the mass "m" of water to boil away = m × 2.26 × 10^6

    Assuming no heat is gained or lost to the surrounding
    Total heat lost by copper = total heat gained by water.

    1.0332×10^5 + 2.26×10^6m = 1.4272×10^5

    2.26×10^6m=(1.4272-1.0332)×10^5
    2.26×10^6m = 0.394×10^5
    m = 0.394×10^5/2.26×10^6
    = 0.0174kg
    = 17.4g

    ====================================================


    (3a)
    The principal focus(F) of a curved mirror(concave) is the point on the principal axis to which incident rays parallel to the principal axis and close to it's converge after reflection.

    Draw the diagram

    (3aii)
    The focal length is the distance measured from the principal focus to the pole of the concave mirror. The distance FP in the diagram above is the focal length of the concave mirror.

    (3bi)
    Draw the diagram

    The candle is placed at the centre of curvature of the concave mirror. A carbon paper receiving the reflected ray at the centre of curvature where the image of the candle is formed will be ignited.

    (3bii)
    Draw the diagram

    The arrangement is as shown above. The object O is placed between the pole of the concave mirror and the principal focus of the mirror. The image formed will be erect but virtual. For the image to be captured on the screen, another concave mirror is placed at the centre of curvature of the first concave mirror. The image formed in the first mirror becomes an object to the 2nd concave mirror. The reflected image can then be captured on the screen.

    (3c)
    Height of object = 50cm
    Distance of object = 1m
    Length of camera = 20cm

    Solution
    F = 20cm, u = 1m = 100cm
    Using mirror formula, 1/f = 1/u + 1/v
    = 1/20 = 1/100 + 1/v
    1/v = 1/20 - 1/100 = 4/100
    V = 100/4 = 25cm

    Magnification = v/u = 25/100 = 0.25

    (i) Height of image is calculated using the magnification of the image
    ie height of image/height of object = magnification

    Height of image = height of object × magnification
    = 50 × 0.25 = 12.5cm

    (ii) Magnification = image distance/object distance = v/u
    = 25/100 = 0.25

    ====================================================


    (4ai)
    The capacitance of a capacitor is defined as the ratio of the charge Q on either plates or conductors to the potential difference v between them.
    C = Q/V,
    C = capacitance of a capacitor.
    Q = charge.
    V = potential difference.

    (4aii)
    (i) It depends on the nature of the dielectric substance.
    (ii) The area between the plates.
    (iii) The distance between the plates

    (4aiii)
    Workdone in charging a capacitor W is given as
    W = 1/2v × q = 1/2qv
    But c = q/v
    Therefore v = q/c
    W = 1/2qv = 1/2q × q/c
    = 1/2 q²/c

    Also, q = cv
    W = 1/2qv = 1/2cv.v = 1/2cv²
    The work done in charging a capacitor is the energy stored in the capacitor.
    W = 1/2qv = 1/2 q²/c = 1/2cv²

    (4b)
    Draw the diagram []

    (i)
    Total capacitance 1/c = 1/5 + 1/7 = 12/35
    c = 35/12uF

    Charge q on both capacitor q = cv
    = 35/12 ×120 = 350×10^-6 or 3.5×10^-4C

    Charge on 5uF capacitor q = 5×10^-6 × 120
    = 6.0×10^-4C

    Charge on 7uF capacitor
    q = 7×10^-6 × 12.
    = 8.40×10^-4C

    (ii)
    P.d across 5uF capacitor = 3.5×10^-4/5×10^-6
    = 0.70×10² = 70v

    P.d across 7uF capacitor = 3.5×10^-4/7×10^-6
    = 0.50×10² = 50v

    (iii)
    E = W = 1/2cv² = 1/2qv
    = 1/2 × 3.5 × 10^-4 × 120
    = 2.10×10^-2J
    = 0.021J

    =====================================================


    (5ai)
    Nuclear fission is the splitting up of the nucleus of a heavy element into two approximate equal parts with a release of a huge amount of energy and neutrons. The mass of the element before fission is slightly reduced. This is accounted for by the huge amount of nuclear energy releases. This energy is given by Albert Einstein equation
    E = Δmc²
    E = energy released,
    Δm = The difference in mass
    c = The velocity of light.

    Nuclear fusion is the process in which two or more light nuclei combine or fuse to form a heavy nucleus with a release of a large amount of energy.
    Element that undergoes nuclear fission is Uranium.
    Element that undergoes fusion are isotopes of hydrogen such as denterium and Tritium.

    (5aii)
    Advantages of fusion over fission:
    (i) Fusion is more easily achieved with highest elements such as hydrogen. Nuclear repulsion is easily overcome as nuclei approach each other.
    (ii) Fusion process is less dangerous as the products are non-radioactive.
    (iii) Raw materials for fusion are readily available.

    (5aiii)
    Fusion has not been used to generate power because the amount of heat requires to bring two higher nuclei together is very high. The temperature is of the order of 10^6 - 10^8 degree Celsius. The material that can withstand such enormous amount of heat does not exist yet. This account for why fusion has not been used to generate power.

    (5bi)
    238U ---> 4H + 2 0e
    92 2 -1
    + 234Th + Energy
    90

    234Th ---> 0e + 234Pa
    90 -1 91
    + Energy.

    (5bii)
    (i) They are used in Medicine as radiotherapy
    (ii) They are used in industries to study defects in metals.
    (iii) They are used in agriculture as radioactive tracers and preservatives.
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    OFFICE
    PRACTICE ANSWERS


    office-obj
    1ACBDADDABB
    11CBCCDAABCC
    21ADAABABCAD
    31AAABDCACBB
    41BCCDACBDBA


    (10)
    (i)HUGE INVESTMENTS; Most of the modern machines are very costly. Moreover, all machines have no enough workload even in very big offices to make them a worthwhile investment.

    (ii)LESSER FLEXIBILITY OF OFFICE SYSTEMS; Machines make it necessary to mechanise the office systems and thus the systems shall become less flexible.

    (iii)CHANCES FOR OBSOLESCENCE; The obsolescence factor of office machine is very high because of the rapid changes that are constantly being made.

    (iv)UNECONOMICAL; There should be enough workload to make optimum use of the machines. If the machines are not used to their fullest capacity, they become uneconomical. Idle machines mean idle capital.

    (v)DOMINANCE OF MACHINE; Unless great care is taken, the machine will become more important than the work it produces. The machine gives more information than actually needed by the office manager.
    =====================================

    (7a)
    (i) It should be as physically compact as possible
    (ii) It should be flexible
    (iii) Easy location
    (iv) Minimum Misfiling
    (v) It should be economical

    (7b)
    (i) It should be as physically compact as possible: The compact filing system should be adopted by every business office. It means that the filing system should not require any unnecessary space.
    (ii) It should be flexible: The filing system can be expanded if the volume of business transactions increased. An inflexible system is not useful after crossing a certain limit.
    (iii) Easy location: Documents and records should be kept in such a way that they can be easily located whenever required with the minimum delay possible. At the same time, it does not require heavy expenditure to achieve this purpose.
    (iv) Minimum Misfiling: The main difficulty is not concerned with filing but in finding the documents. Misfiling causes delay in the location of desired document. Hence, the authorized staff alone is permitted to have access to files.
    (v) It should be economical: The filing system should be economical in time, space, money and operations. The cost of installation and operation of filling system should be as low as possible. The selected filing equipment should occupy minimum space but can accommodate maximum number of files.
    =====================================

    (6a)
    Invoce: An invoice is a commercial document that itemizes and records a transaction between a buyer and a seller. If goods or services were purchased on credit, the invoice usually specifies the terms of the deal and provides information on the available methods of payment

    (6b)
    Letter of Enquiry: This is a letter written to request information and/or ascertain its authenticity. A letter of inquiry deals with various matters like job vacancies, funding, grants, scholarships, projects, sales, pre-proposals and others.

    (6c)
    Statement of account: This is a detailed report of the contents of an account. . An example is a statement sent to a customer, showing billings to and payments from the customer during a specific time period, resulting in an ending balance.
    =====================================

    (4)
    (i) Builds and maintains relationships: Relationships are built and can be maintained by positive encounters with others. Communication will be key to this process. Without effective communication skills, it will be difficult to properly construct and foster productive relationships between businesses and their customers

    (ii) Ensures transparency: When regularly communicating both internally and externally, organisations remain more transparent. This is important in building trust in your brand, in your services and also internally when it comes to the trust that employees have in higher management.

    (iii) Facilitates innovation: When employees feel comfortable in openly communicating new ideas, cooperation and innovation will be at an all-time high. In addition, if staff are unable to convey their ideas due to limited communication skills, it is likely that the idea will not be implemented to its full potential.

    (iv) Builds an effective team: If open communication within a workplace is encouraged, a more cohesive and effective team will emerge. Good communication within a team also tends to boost employee morale. When employees feel that they are well informed of the company’s direction and vision, they will feel more secure within their role. Regular internal communication can also lead to an improved work ethic if staff are reminded of achievements and feel that they are working towards a common goal.

    (v) Helps in managing employees: When managers are effective communicators, they are more able to inform staff adequately of their responsibilities and what is expected from them. Good communication skills also helps managers to provide constructive feedback to their staff, build better relationships, and understand personal goals that staff may wish to work towards.
    =====================================

    (2a)
    (i) The Heading
    (ii) Salutation
    (iii) The Inside Address
    (iv) The Body
    (v) The Signature

    (2b)
    LETTER:
    (i) Formal and informative in nature
    (ii) Comparatively long
    (iii) A letter is duly signed by the sender
    (iv) Simple words are used
    (v) Communication pattern is One to one

    MEMO:
    (i) Informal and Concise in nature
    (ii) It is short
    (iii) Signature is not required in a memo
    (iv) Use of technical jargon
    (v) Communication is One to many
    =====================================


    (1a)
    A meeting is a gathering of two or more people that has been convened for the purpose of achieving a common goal through verbal interaction, such as sharing information or reaching agreement.

    (1bi)
    Annual General Meeting: This is a yearly meeting of shareholders, members of company, firm and organizations to assess the trading of the organization over the year.

    (1bii)
    Extraordinary general meeting (EGM) refers to any shareholder meeting called by a company other than its scheduled annual meeting. It is held when some urgent issue about the company arises or any situation of crisis and it requires the input of all senior executives and the Board.

    (1biii)
    The board of directors meeting is a formal meeting of an organization's board members. This meeting is usually held at regular intervals to discuss major problems and policy issues within the organization. All individuals that make up an organization's board of directors are usually in attendance
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    MATHEMATICS ANSWERS

    MATHS-OBJ
    1CDCDACCCDA
    11BDACDDBBCD
    21DBCBDDDBCC
    31CCCBBDDBAB
    41BBCBBCBBCB



    (1a)
    4/5 - (1/16 + 1/4 of 3¾)
    4/5 - (1/16 + 1/4 × 15/4)
    4/5 - (1/16 + 15/16)
    4/5 - (1+15/16)
    4/5 - 16/16
    4/5 - 1
    = 4 - 5/5 = -1/5

    (1b)
    √75 + 2√48 - √108
    Solution
    √25×3 + 2√16×3 - √36×3
    5√3 + 28√3 - 6√3
    (5 + 28 - 6)√3
    27√3

    ==============================

    (2a)
    0.25×0.000081/0.09×0.08
    =2.5×10^-¹ × 8.1×10^-5/9×10^-2 × 8×10^-2
    =2.5×8.1×10^-6/9×8×10^-4
    =2.5×81×10^-8/9×8×10^-4
    =25×9/8 × 10^-8 × 10^4
    =28.125×10^-4
    =2.8125×10^-3

    (2b)
    1101₂ × 101₂
    1101₂
    × 101₂
    1101
    0000
    1101
    1000001₂
    Therefore 1101₂ × 101₂ = 1000001₂

    ===============================

    (3a)
    {Draw the diagram}

    Total surface area = Area of rectangle + Area of triangle
    Area of rectangle = L×B
    = 12×6 = 72cm²

    From ΔACB
    |AB|² = |BC|²+|AC|²
    (13)² = x² + (12)²
    169 = x² + 144
    x² = 169 - 144
    x = √25
    x = 5cm

    Area of triangle = 1/2bh
    = 1/2×5×12
    =30cm²

    Total surface area=30+72
    = 102cm²

    (3b)
    Volume of the prism
    = base area × length
    = area of triangle × length
    = 1/2bh × L
    = 1/2×5×12 × 6
    = 30 × 6
    = 180cm³

    ==============================

    (4a)
    16^x - 1/4 = 128
    2^4(x-1/4) = 2^7
    4(x-1/4) = 7
    4x - 1 = 7
    4x = 7 + 1
    4x = 8
    x = 8/4 = 2
    x = 2

    (4b)
    Given that
    I = #49,500
    P = #310,000
    T = 5years
    R = ?
    I = PRT/100
    R = 100I/PT
    R = 100×49500/310,000×5
    R = 495/31×5
    R = 495/155
    R = 3.19%

    ==============================


    (5)
    Given that
    U = {1,2,3,4,...,15}
    B = {1,3,5,7,9,11}
    C = {3,6,9,12,15}
    D = {2,3,5,7,11,13}

    (B U C)^c n D
    B U C = {1,3,5,6,7,9,11,12,15}
    (B U C)^c = {2,4,8,10,13,14}
    (B U C)^c n D = {2,13}

    =============================

    (6a)
    √21.81² × 37.2/92.63

    Solution

    No | Log
    21.81² |1.3387 x 2
    |=2.6774
    37.2 |1.5705
    | 2.6774
    |+1.5705
    | 4.2479
    92.63 |-1.9667
    | = 2.2812
    |2.2812÷2
    | =1.1406

    (6b)
    3sin²Φ - 4sinΦ, given that cosΦ = 1/√2
    But, sin²Φ + cos²Φ = 1
    sin²Φ + (1/√2)² =1
    sin²Φ + 1/2 = 1
    sin²Φ = 1 - 1/2 = 1/2
    sin²Φ = 1/2
    and sin Φ = 1/√2
    3sin²Φ - 4sinΦ = 3×1/2 - 4/√2
    = 3/2 - 4√2/2 = 3/2 - 2√2
    or 3-4√2/2

    Antilog of 1.1406 = 13.82

    =============================


    (7a)
    Draw the diagram

    The bearing of Q from O = 50 + Φ
    Sin P/p = sin Q/t
    p/Sin P = t/sinα
    250/sin115 = t/sinα
    sin α = 100×sin115/250
    =90.63/250 = 0.3625
    α = sin-¹(0.3625) = 21.26°
    α = 21.26°
    α+Φ+115 = 180(sum of angles in a triangle)
    Φ + 21.26 + 115 = 180
    Φ = 180 - 136.26
    Φ = 43.74°

    Therefore the bearing of Q from O = 50 + 43.74°
    = 93.74°

    (7aii)
    The distance PQ
    Using sine rule
    P/sin P = 0/sinΦ
    P/sin P = y/sinΦ
    y = P×sinΦ/sinP
    = 250×sin43.74/sin115
    y = 172.846/0.906
    y = 190.77
    y = 190.8km
    The distance PQ = 190.8km

    (7b)
    {Draw the diagram}

    (i)
    Area of the curved surface = 2πrh
    =2×3.142×3.5×15.5
    =340.907cm²

    (ii)
    Total surface area
    = 2πr(r+h)
    = 2×3.142×3.5(3.5+15.5)
    =6.284(19)
    = 119.4cm²

    ==============================

    (8a)
    Given that y = 2x² - x - 10
    -3 ≤ x ≤ 3

    X | -3 | -2 | -1 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3
    x² | 9 | 4 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 4 | 9
    2x²|18| 8 | 2 | 0 | 2 | 8 | 18
    -X | 3 | 2 | 1 | 0 | -1| -2 | -3
    -10|-10|-10|-10|-10|-10|-10|-10
    y | 11 | 0 | -7 | -10 | -9 | -4 | -5

    (8b)
    Plot the graph

    (8ci)
    The roots of the equation y=2x² - x - 10 = 0 are -2 and 2.5

    (8cii)
    The root of the equation
    2x² - x - 3 = 0 are -1 and 1.4
    This can be obtained from the graph as
    2x² - x - 3 = 2x² - x - 10
    The difference is 7
    y = -7
    A parallel line is drawn to cross the parabola through -7. The roots are -1 and 1.4

    (8d)
    The minimum value of the function = -10

    ================================


    (9a)
    {Draw the diagram}

    AB = Φ/360 × 2πRcosα
    AB = 1100km
    1100 = (70-50)/360×2×22/7×640×cosα
    1100 = 20/360× 281600×cosα/7
    1100 = 5632000cosα/2520
    cosα = 1100×2520/5632000
    cosα = 2772000/5632000
    cosα = 0.4922
    α = cos-¹(0.4922)
    α = 60.52°
    The parallel latitude to the nearest degree = 61°

    (9b)
    Draw the diagram
    Perimeter = 2(L+B)
    2(L+B) = 34
    L+B = 17 ------(1)
    Area = L×B
    LB = 72 ------(2)
    Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously
    L + B = 17------(1)
    LB = 72------(2)
    From (1) L = 17 - B -----(3)
    Putting (3) into (2)
    LB = 72
    (17 - B) B = 72
    17B - B² = 72
    B² - 17B + 72 = 0
    Solving quadratically
    (B² - 8B) -(9B + 72) = 0
    B(B - 8) -9(B - 8) = 0
    (B - 8)(B - 9) = 0
    B - 8 = 0 or B - 9 = 0
    B = 8cm or B = 9cm
    Breadth = 8cm or 9cm
    From (3)
    L = 17 - B
    When B = 8cm
    L = 17 - 8 = 9cm

    When B = 9cm
    L = 17 - 9 = 8cm
    Lengths = 9cm or 8cm

    =============================

    (11ai)
    {Draw the diagram}
    Length of arc AB = 10.5cm
    L = Φ/360 × 2πr
    10.5 = 65/360×2×3.142r
    65×6.284r = 360×10.5
    r = 360×10.5/65×6.284
    =3780/408.46 = 9.25cm
    radius = 9.3cm

    (11aii)
    Length of major arc
    = Φ/360 × 2πr
    Φ = 360 - 65 = 295°
    L = 295/360×2×3.142×9.3
    L = 17240.154/360
    L = 47.9cm
    Length of major arc = 48cm(2s.f)

    (11b)
    Draw the diagram

    Perimeter of a Sector
    =Length of arc + 2r
    = 2r + Φ/360 × 2πr
    = 2r[1 + 0.6109]
    = 40(1.6109)
    = 64.436cm
    Therefore the perimeter of a Sector is 64.436cm²
    P = 64.4cm(1d.p)
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    ICT ANSWERS

    ICT OBJ
    1-10: BBCADACBBC
    11-20: DCBDDACBBD
    21-30: BACBCACCDB
    31-40: ABAACDCAAD



    (1a)
    In a tabular form

    PRIMARY STORAGE:
    (i) Data is lost when the device loses power.
    (ii) It refers to man-made memory such as the random access memory(RAM).
    (iii) It is a volatile memory.
    (iv) It holds data or instructions that are currently in use.
    (v) Data is directly accesses by the CPU.

    SECONDARY STORAGE:
    (i) Data is intact even when the device loses power.
    (ii) It refers to auxiliary memory, external memory or secondary memory.
    (iii) It is a non-volatile memory.
    (iv) It is used to store and retrieve data or information on a long-term basis.
    (v) Data is not directly accessed by the CPU.

    (1aii)
    INPUT UNIT:
    (i) Sends data to the computer
    (ii) Input devices are more complicated as they have complex coating to ensure that the user can interact with the computer correctly
    (iii) The data is provided throug input devices such as keyboard, mouse, track ball and joystick.


    OUTPUT UNIT:
    (i) Gets data from the computer.
    (ii) They are simpler for user since they only see the results and do not have to learn the processes.
    (iii) The data is provided throug output devices like display screen, printer, plotter and speaker.

    (1aiii)
    Email is a method of exchanging digital messages over a communication network such as internet while Yahoo is an email service provider and an internet Portal that incorporates a search engine and a directory if world wide web site organized in a hierarchy of topic categories.

    (1bi)
    First generation computers: It use vacuum tubes as a major piece of technology. Vacuum tubes were widely used in computers from 1940 to 1956. Vacuum tubes were larger components and resulted in first generation computers being quite large in size taking up a lot of space in a room. These first generation computers relied on ‘machine language’ (which is the most basic programming language that can be understood by computers). These computers were limited to solving one problem at a time.

    (1bii)
    Second generation computers: It made use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. Transistors were widely used in computers from 1956 to 1963. Transistors were smaller than vacuum and allowed computers to be smaller in size, faster in speed and cheaper to build. The language evolved from cryptic binary language to symbolic (‘assembly’) languages. This meant programmers could create instructions in words.

    (1biii)
    Third generation computers: Introduced the use of IC(integrated circuits) in computers. Using IC's in computers helped reduce the size of computers even more compared to second generation computers, as well as make them faster. These were the first computers where users interacted using keyboards and monitors which interfaced with an operating system, a significant leap up from the punch cards and printouts.

    ==========================================================


    (2ai)
    (i) It allows many programs to operate at the same time.
    (ii) Windows applications take up less disk space and less space in memory when windows is running already.
    (iii) Windows provides functions with the ability to draw text in different styles and sizes that is not provided in DOS.

    (2aii)
    (i) It manages the computer's resources such as the central processing unit, memory, disk drives and printers.
    (ii) It establishes a user interface.

    (2aiii)
    (i) Mainframe computer.
    (ii) Micro computer.
    (iii) Mini computer.

    (2b)
    (i) UDP - User Datagram Protocol
    (ii) HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
    (iii) HTML - Hypertext Markup Language
    (iv) ISP - Internet Service Provider.

    ===========================================================



    (3ai)
    A word processor is a program that is used to create different types of documents. The most common known one is Microsoft word, although there are many more and many better ones while word processing is when you take the information someone has sent/given you and create a document using one of the above programs.

    (3aii)
    (i) Outline
    (ii) Shadow
    (iii) Subscript
    (iv) Emboss
    (v) Engrave
    (vi) Superscript

    (3aiii)
    Headers and footers are required in a document to make it more structured and organized.

    (3bi)
    (i) It offers users a variety of reading modes
    (ii) It works on mobile devices as well as computers
    (iii) It can access documents from the cloud
    (iv) It supports various file formats and lets users add multimedia to their documents

    (3bii)
    Mail merge is used to easily modify one part of a document with unique data elements.

    ======================================================


    (4ai)
    A spreadsheet is an application that enables a user to calculate numerical data, save, sort and manage data in an arranged form of rows and columns.

    (4aii)
    A function in Excel is a predefined formula that performs calculations using specific values in a particular order.

    (4bi)
    Minimum value is a formula function used in Microsoft Excel and other spreadsheet programs to find the mninimum value in a range of cells. For example, the formula below finds the minimum value in cells A1 through A10.

    4bii)
    Maximum value is a computer program that you run from a worksheet cell formula MIT determines the maximum value out of a group of values.

    (4biii)
    Adding values helps users perform a quick summation of specified cells in MS Excel

    (4ci)
    (i) It provides invaluable tools for collecting and calculating data of all types
    (ii) It is used to organize and categorize data into a logical format

    (4cii)
    (a) Cell address is an alphanumeric value used to identify a specific cell in a spreadsheet.
    (b) Worksheet is a single page in a file created with an electronic spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets.
    (c) Workbook is a collection of one or more spreadsheets in a single file.

    =====================================================


    (5a)
    A database management system (DBMS) is the software that allows a computer to perform database functions of storing,retrieving ,adding,deleting and modifying data. It also allow users to create their own databases.

    (5bi)
    Database: A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. It is also a set of data that has a regular structure and that is organized in such a way that a computer can easily find the desired information.

    (5bii)
    Record: Record is a group of related data held within the same structure. Groups of records are then saved in a table; the table defines the data that each record may contain. In a given database, there are multiple tables, each containing multiple records.

    (5biii)
    Query: A query is a request for data or information from a database table or combination of tables. One of several different query languages may be used to perform a range of simple to complex database queries. SQL, the most well-known and widely-used query language, is familiar to most database administrators.

    (vi) Datasheet view: Datasheet view refers to row wise and column wise viewing of data in a table in database applications such as spreadsheets, Access, Excel, and so on. The information pertaining to individual records is provided in individual rows and the attributes related to that record is given in the corresponding columns.

    (5c)
    (i) Tables
    (ii) Queries
    (iii) Forms
    (iv) Reports

    =======================================================
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    ENGLISH-OBJ
    1BBCCDBBCCB
    11BADACADBDC
    21ABBCBACBAD
    31CCDCCCDDCA
    41CBDBACACBA
    51BBDCCABCDC
    61BDCBACBCDC
    71CADCBCADBA
    81DBCBACBCBC
    91BDABCBACBD
    =================================


    (5a)
    It was the gold that started coming into Spain from Peru after Francisco Pizarro conquest.

    (5b)
    From the story of the chief, they believed that a chief who can waste much gold dust in a lake can actually have a golden empire where he rules.

    (5c)
    They did it to save their lives since Gonzalo killed those that told him the truth.

    (5d)
    (i) To serve as carriers of supplies.
    (ii) To serve as scouts.

    (5e)
    Seven hundred and forty men

    (5f)
    Hyperbole

    (5g)
    (i) Noun phrase.
    (ii) It serves as the object of the verb "kill" in the sentence

    (5h)
    (i) Strange - mysterious
    (ii) Appeared - Seemed
    (iii) Vast - Wide
    (iv) Wrath - anger
    (v) Unabated - persistently
    ================================

    (6a)
    (i)Firstly, coastal middlemen wanted to maintain their dominance.
    (ii)Secondly, disease limited the European penetration to the interior.
    (iii)Lastly, local rulers had firm control over their territories.

    (6b)
    (i)Firstly, Africans were exposed to some sort of slavery.
    (ii)Secondly, it was a very lucrative business for all parties.
    (iii)Lastly, most people are not privy to the horrors associated with slavery
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    (3)
    EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES
    Students have perfected the various forms of cheating in the examination halls.
    Some of the methods employed under this practice include bringing foreign
    materials into the examination halls. These foreign materials include prepared
    notes and materials written on palms, thighs and textbooks and they also come in
    with various tricks like 'hide-and-seek' and gadgets like micro-chips and magic text
    all designed to assist them to pass the examination instead of relying on their own
    abilities.
    Other unwholesome developments inside and outside the examination halls bother
    on stealing of people's work, converting or misappropriating the scripts of other
    candidates, substitution of scripts at the end of the examination, tearing answer
    scripts for the examination papers only to complain later that their scripts are
    missing.
    There is also seeking and receiving help from people by what they call "giraffing"
    and copying other candidates' work.
    There are others called "towing" and "ECOMOG" which involve candidates
    arranging with people before hand to assist them in writing examination, seeking
    and receiving help from other candidates are very common in recent times. There
    is also collusion between two or more candidates who usually agree before hand to
    assist each other. Impersonation is also common among students. Under the
    practice, a student goes to sit for the real candidate in order to pass the examination
    on behalf of the other candidate. Such examination "contractors" are paid for their
    service either before or after writing the examination.
    Leakages of examination question papers sometimes come through lecturers,
    faculty officers and examination officers or examination councils.
    The resurgence of the problem, which has reached alarming proportion, is due to
    poverty or inadequate remuneration and students realising this, collect large
    amounts of money for examination officers so that examination papers could be
    leaked to them.
    Mass cheating is another dimension that examination malpractice has assumed.
    Nowadays, the whole thing has become more sophisticated with the advent/use of
    electronic assisted materials. Calculators, palm tops (which are mini-computers)
    are sent to examination halls unnoticed. Organisers, small-sized compact discs, mobile phones, though not allowed in examination halls are sneaked in because
    messages could be text to them in the hall.
    The problem has defied possible solutions, because most of those who indulge in
    examination malpractice happen to have rich and influential parents. Parents of
    such culprits use their influence in the society to get them out of trouble. This is so
    because the Ghanaian society had become decadent.
    Even when they know their children are guilty, they use their positions as powerful
    people in the society to influence the outcome of investigations into examination
    malpractice. This, to say the least, is despicable.
    WOES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE
    The dangers that examination malpractice pose include perpetual condemnation of
    one's conscience whereby the carrier of the fake certificate is constantly under the
    persecution of carrying something that is false. It also leads to professional
    inefficiency. The carrier knows that he is not entitled to what he is carrying.
    This further leads to a problem of unfulfilled dreams because God distastes
    injustice and, therefore, does not condone something that is wrong.
    They also bring shame and embarrassment to their families and relations. Legal
    sword of justice might fall on them leading to expulsion and cancellation of results.
    SUGGESTIONS
    Christian groups should campaign against this behaviour on and off campus and
    motivate others to replicate the same so that the message would be spread round
    that examination malpractice is evil and attracts God's sanctions.
    Genuine conversion would help in stamping out examination malpractice since a
    saved soul would desist from all forms of unrighteousness.
    Moral upbringing of children of Christian parents should be enhanced so that all
    the children are brought up properly in accordance with God's standards.
    The employers of various institutions must be bold enough to verify and confirm
    certificates of their prospective employees because experience has shown that some certificates are being forged. Prayers are also required to stamp out these
    nefarious activities from our country.
    Seminars must be organised at various levels to sensitise people on the evils of
    examination malpractice. Print and electronic media should be used and as campus
    campaigns held to harp on the fact that the practice is ungodly.

    ====================================

    (5a)
    (i) Globe - world
    (ii) Stigma - disgrace
    (iii) Alternative - option
    (iv) Enact - make
    (v) Liberty - freedom

    (5b)
    (i) Adjectival clause
    (ii) It qualifies the noun "lady" in the main clause

    (5c)
    Oxymoron

    (5d)
    Arrangement or agreement by man and woman to live together for sometime before getting married legally.

    (5e)
    (i) Unfavourable economic situations
    (ii) Laws that give room for having children outside wedlock.

    (5f)
    It is a long-legally established and universally accepted unit or union

    ====================================

    (6)
    (i) It started with flames and smoke
    (ii) The wind blew fine white dust from the volcano upon the Pompeians
    (iii) Stones started falling out from the volcano
    (iV) Emission of Sulphur fumes from the volcano
    (v) It then started venting hot ashes which trapped and killed all living creatures in Pompeians

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